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ap/xxxxx

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http://www.frank-buss.de/lispcpu/ 22:34 (2006.08.21:6 tech_notes#245 research#62 waves#2 xxxxx_at_piksel_notes#17)

data paths (registers and operations) and the controller 22:21 (2006.08.21:4 tech_notes#243 research#61 waves#1)

for a CPU:

(again)

http://www.async.ece.utah.edu/~myers/nobackup/ee3700_99/xilinx/lab8.html

waves notes somehow lost - now here::

notes:

Life coding: (Noise ()()))) and quotation

modulation already specifies a doubling in its very description:

Modulation is the process of varying a carrier signal in order to use that signal to convey information. The three key parameters of a sinusoid are its amplitude, its phase and its frequency, all of which can be modified in accordance with an information signal to obtain the modulated signal. A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device that performs the inverse operation of demodulation is known as a demodulator. A device that can do both operations is a modem (a contraction of the two terms).

the information thence as orphaned from its carrier in diode-induced demodulation, rectification or detection - only one partner can walk that one way street - a discarding which may as well refer to noise - noise (a la Turing - the one time pad which encodes (voice codes) discretised speech - in the case of Turing in 1941, 11 signals (amplitude information) - one time and not more than one time)

the vocoder encodes the voice (in the interests of an economy, discarding a twinned redundancy already of a carrier in favour of reducing (the expense of) bandwidth during a love telephone call.

thanks to Turing's modifications the expression could be encrypted - according to the Vernam principle applied to discretised speech:

So Vernam's system was a very simple, in principle, system where you had plain language add obscuring characters and at the other end add back exactly the same obscuring characters and the they cancel out and leave you with the plain language.

(all in modulo 2 - the cancelling action)

speech signals at 11 bandwidths sampled 50 times a second and added in modular fashion to the random 9 (reproducible) sequence. the doubling in modulo six this time

1) what is life coding - as expressed by the design of a CPU, the design of a simulations machinery after Daniel Galouye (Simulacron 3 - reworked by Rainer Werner Fassbinder as a pure filmic description of Rossler's endophysics, head, eye and camera in electronic transition - zero domain crossing is your reference).

our model for the CPU, and the question that the idea of the CPU renders is precisely where we draw the line, where we mark a division or passage between hardware and software, a false and delirious division which could be imagined as between the analogue and the digital - the digital and/as a reining in of the analogue - not so much in terms of discretisation but of a forbidden zone far from zero crossing - a forbidden zone which precisely the Schmitt trigger is designed to out-sketch, to eliminate, drawing that wave as squared, as regular noise. A different time-frame for a digitised sine wave which can also stand as a modulation. what carrier?

so there is this drawing of the line which is a question of instructions also, of microcodes which express the most basic operations which can be achieved in terms of raw hardware, of gates opening and closing around a machinery. on the bus. a drawing of the line which is a question of virtual machines - of how that instruction is understood by an underlying machinery. an old tale of abstractions which fits language. the same line-drawing which articulates a progression into high-level code by way of the (termed by computer scientists as incestuous - within a bachelor realm) interpreter (we will meet again under the terms of evaluation) or the compiler.

such allows us to choose as a model for the CPU, the design of a LISP-based processor undertaken by Guy Steele and Gerald Sussman in the 70s at MIT AI labs. the idea here of a layering down to hardware which mimes the same principles or ideas, an equivalence of data and code which marks the incestuous role-play of the interpreter (code into action, into electricity reflexively) and allows for the entry of quotation; quotation implying a system of notation which can equally well be the brackets of the so-called Lisp S-expressions, or ones and zeroes.

http://repository.readscheme.org/ftp/papers/ai-lab-pubs/AIM-514.pdf

(Lisp typified as high-level machine language)

how we can proceed from the specification of a high-level programming language - conceived a means of active process description and symbolic manipulation - the latter as key to the electric process described here - rather than as, say, a spreadsheet - proceed from this specification to the description in a (software generated) circuit diagram for that which will run or mime this language.

how does quotation take place in hardware?

firstly quotation in software:

(quote bear)

(defun bear (x y) (cons x y))

'(bear cat mouse)

and in hardware -

The evaluation of type 7 (quote) returns the cdr of the object

2) and how is an instruction set modulated (hidden opcodes in relation to

simulations machinery)?

the question of a carrier.


a relationship mapped exactly by the (necessarily) viral executable (language)

modulation and machine - modulation of an instruction set or set of opcodes (lambda as the ultimate opcode - with reference to below:

quotation in the Lisp CPU:

insert

definition of the CPU (for a world on a wire) - hidden instruction sets

CPU - instruction sets and microcode, a state machine also

implemented as a circuit.

There will not, there can not be one entry point, a singular introduction to the new domain signalled and signposted by xxxxx, the crash that dare not speak its name, and the associated, sardonic activity of freshly minted life coding. The parallel of multiple introductions here, by way of reference to Kittler's texts which span this compendium, with common CPU, processor or the 3 dimensional micro-sculpture of silicon, aluminium and other substances is rewarding; a black-boxed city architecture rendered less than evident through lengthy documentation of always exposed bulked pins determined as I/O, data flows as buses and clock lines. The pins surround the core, providing access, a window on a windowless monadic chip. And at the same time what is revealed of a fiction which is the instruction set. Common examples of this abstracted, less real language could be quoted (the Intel 80x86 instruction set comprises 137 such codes):

AND - Logical And CMPS - Compare String (Byte, Word or Doubleword) CLTS - Clear Task Switched Flag (286+ privileged) IN - Input Byte or Word From Port INVLPG - Invalidate Translation Look-Aside Buffer Entry (486+) LGDT - Load Global Descriptor Table (286+ privileged) NOP - No Operation (90h) ROL - Rotate Left ROR - Rotate Right

http://www.penguin.cz/~literakl/intel/intel.html

(from introduction also:)

We could return full circle to the instruction set, another kind of writing which is itself close to electricity, whilst at the same time effecting some kind of hidden purpose - the very (sexual) ENIGMA of Alan Turing; a black art, as assembly language hacking is commonly referred to, indeed allied to the black apparatus (Schwarzgerat) remaining untranslated in Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow. Short circuit and full circle production line. Silicon rewrites itself as circuit and as articulation of instruction sets. Life coding is a question of economies and cynicism. Life coding is a question of economies and cynicism. The circle is closed. The CPU design is completed, again following a dream.

A process-driven presentation of the newly coined, cynical terms of "life coding" in relation to necessarily open hardware. Life coding presents a double movement, summarising and expanding the concerns of xxxxx on an horizon presented by the commandline. Such concerns can be enumerated as the ironic interrogation of the hidden (atrocity exhibition) instruction set composed as/for a machine for living, reversibility in computation and physics (simulations theory) and finally investigation of an active circuit articulated by the changes in digital circuitry itself which are effected by those instructions. The so-called (non) fiction of the real lived (film) is constructed by way of the real effects of a fictional instruction set (the impact of ambiguous software on the real, electricity and economics) is to be examined through attention to soft and hard-ware artefacts; a relationship mapped exactly by the (necessarily) viral executable (language)

for the construction of a state machine - a description of a state machine and registers/operations

Brackets as a form of encoding; binary or otherwise to encode the description of a machine:

In a similar way, we can regard the evaluator as a very special machine that takes as input a description of a machine. Given this input, the evaluator configures itself to emulate the machine described. For example, if we feed our evaluator the definition of factorial, as shown in figure x, the evaluator will be able to compute factorials.

quotation, as in writing, to differentiate between active code and passive data. to mark a transition of cut and pastage - passage

splicing in

(entry into Sadean lif/ve coding -> a definition?)

A dream of life, a life as dream expressed in language veiling the dream, the life, the contained world of Endophysics; Rene Descartes' dream, Alice's dream, dis-encoded dreams of Swedenborg. Yet always in writing; outside the circuit (circuit, circle of that Kekule dream of the snake return. Serpent circuit). Life coding is the question of world frame (Endophysics) without entering into the equally brutal term of consciousness. The opening credits roll.

We see a bibliography preceding a film which is already held together by a tissue of quotations (written, spoke, gestural simulacra), themselves appearing absurd within a context of degradation, of explicitly cruel acts. Reverse the process, viewing this lengthy textual compendium, reframed texts within the context of an xxxxx thematic, in tandem with a viewing, most probably electronic, of Pier Paulo Pasolini's Salo and that bibliography, surrounding documentation also rendered as artefacts. An encoding of Salo according to some system or active scheme of representation.

Encoding those enframings, insertions and contextual shifts (life as dream as life as dream) enacted by quotation.

A system of notation (software) mapping levels of action, quotation and description (Salo is such a case - in being filmed, in the act of filming a prescribed script - of expanded software); relation and marking as itself also within Salo - systematics and enacted diagram overlap here is short circuit of the pseudo-scientific rationalism of de Sade and pornographic intent itself. Such a diagram/system of description can be extrapolated in the opposite direction as a system of creation. We can also calculate strict parallels with the embeddings of simulated worlds/enframings/literary quotation (Zeno)/the circuit diagram within Rainer Werner Fassbinder's Welt am Draht (World on a Wire), and thence to originating text Simulacron Three by Daniel Galouye referenced as an entry into the original domain of Endophysics as described by Otto Roessler (see page xxx).

Sadean life/live coding, with reference to clear systematics, is of an extreme order, existing in obvious relation to Stewart Home and Florian Cramer's exegesis of pornographic coding (page xxx). By way of equally systematic artist Pierre Klossowski we can begin to decode Sade's writing in essential relation to the executable:

The description Sade gives of his own experience in the characters he created covers a twofold experimentation: (1) that of the representation of the sensuous in an aberrant act; (2) that of the described representation.

[Pierre Klossowski. Sade My Neighbour. Quartet books 1992 page 17]

Sade's text is not "purely descriptive" but rather functions as quine-like source code for an interpreter. Again we're near to the closed circuit of expanded hardware - an interiority of code in Klossowski's terms referenced as a bloody Cyclops eye otherwise known as the bedroom. Sade as the primal "coder in the boudoir."

This is made evident in Salo. The frame. The whore/storytellers relating of an aberration interpreted by the machinery (CPU) of the libertines; rendered executable and electric within that circuitry.

A spoken source code, grey as celluloid, lingers within the irreversible miasmic air of the chateau. Even the code comments are there:

Do we read Sade as we read Laclos, Stendhal, Balzac? Clearly not! We would not look to the bottom of the pages of Splendours and Miseries of the Courtesans [ital] for notes that would give prescriptive formulas and recipes for procedures to follow or ways to act in the bedchamber. We do find here and there this sort of pragmatic note at the bottom of the pages of Juliette [ital]... These pragmatic notes belong to the exercise of purest irony.

[Pierre Klossowski. Sade My Neighbour. Quartet books 1992 page 42]

In this code walk through (low level to high level or in reverse to action) we are one step away from execution; the next paragraph. The ambiguity of live/life coding presents a similar exercise in irony/cynicism. Life as code, as dictation. The machine (for living - a house or a body) only does that which it has been instructed to do. Alternatively living coding at the command line; that horizontal prompt proving a horizon for contemplation. Just as Klossowski quite rightly states that such an exercise in the "purest irony," our code comments, would not function is such notes did not achieve "real pragmatic use." They must be capable of being rendered executable, of indicating an outside which is "not at all the interior of the 'bedroom'..." where one would code.

The whores function as a prime example of Sadean life coders and also engage economy. Execution is quite literally the final dance, the two hopeful boys embrace at the close of the film cut across the tubular torture garden at the end of the telescope or kaleidoscope screwing down the Cyclops iris of the film camera. The pinnacle of an always-fictional snuff movie as a sexual reflexivity in the seedy primal location of Edison's Black Maria or Kinetographic theatre. The apparatus here is also in the circuit; perfect end credits of a stopped down lens sequence. A circuit which could be readily coaxed to embrace a particular director's death.

What gives Sade's text its disturbing originality is that through him this outside comes to be commented on as something produced within thought.

[Pierre Klossowski. Sade My Neighbour. Quartet books 1992 page 42]

Full circle. This is the other half of the two rainbow portions left and right forming the loop (antenna); an active circuit articulated by the changes in digital circuitry itself which are effected by the instructions. A setting of switches in strict notated time; a transition from 24 fps to 2.7 GHz, TTL or CMOS modulation within an economy, a system of production impacted by the very wavelength of light. The following can well be compared with Pynchon's electromysticism closing the work:

... first a series of tales, discourses, then a series of tableaux that slyly invite the reader to see outside what does not seem to lie in the text - whereas nothing is visible anywhere except in the text. His work then is like the vast layout of an urban showroom in the heart of the city, one with the city, where without noticing it one passes from the objects exhibited to objects that exhibit themselves fortuitously without being exhibitable. At length one recognises that it is to these that the corridors of the exhibition lead.

[Pierre Klossowski. Sade My Neighbour. Quartet books 1992 page 42]

(all from the intro below...)

to encode the description of a machine...

to encode Salo levels of quotation, of commentary, of the actor and (of course) filmed action intended for documentary of for THE film.

circuit diagram translation of the CPU design - switches, multiplexing, gates describe a reconfigurable circuit made active by electricity, by clock speeds (the crystal which can equally well provide us with a carrier).

the base electronics, a series of questions:

1) what is zero crossing point?

In alternating current, the zero crossing is the instantaneous point at which there is no voltage present (from positive to negative). In a sine wave or other simple waveform, this normally occurs twice during each cycle.

a zero crossing detector circuit: http://www.dainst.com/info/circuits/zero_crossing.html

further: zero crossing and the diode:

A detector is a device that recovers information of interest contained in a modulated wave. The term dates from the early days of radio when all transmissions were in Morse Code, and it was only necessary to "Detect" the presence (or absence) of a radio wave; not necessarily making it audible.

see also:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coherer

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spark_gap_transmitter

the diode in radio:

The first use for the diode was the demodulation of amplitude modulated (AM) radio broadcasts. The history of this discovery is treated in depth in the radio article. In summary, an AM signal consists of alternating positive and negative peaks of voltage, whose amplitude or 'envelope' is proportional to the original audio signal, but whose average value is zero. The diode (originally a crystal diode) rectifies the AM signal, leaving a signal whose average amplitude is the desired audio signal. The average value is extracted using a simple filter and fed into an audio transducer, which generates sound.

The poorly titled detector picks the audio frequencies out from radio wave by rectifying the waveform. The waveform carries two (the dual) signals of equal positive and negative value, cancelling each other out in mechanical terms for an electromagnetic loudspeaker.

what is modulation:

Modulation is the process of varying a carrier signal in order to use that signal to convey information. The three key parameters of a sinusoid are its amplitude, its phase and its frequency, all of which can be modified in accordance with an information signal to obtain the modulated signal. A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device that performs the inverse operation of demodulation is known as a demodulator. A device that can do both operations is a modem (a contraction of the two terms).

what is amplitude modulation:

Amplitude modulation (AM) is a form of modulation in which the amplitude of a carrier wave is varied in direct proportion to that of a modulating signal.

enter the mirror image or double divided by the alice diode:

In its basic form, amplitude modulation produces a signal with power concentrated at the carrier frequency and in two adjacent sidebands. Each sideband is equal in bandwidth to that of the modulating signal and is a mirror image of the other.

the above and the below

The Alice diode, a looking glass reversibility memento, (that one way street, supposedly, though less than perfect and presenting leakage in an opposing direction) erases the symmetry, the above and below of the wave to present a series of rainbows.

Such Alice through the Looking Glass capabilities, better visualised in terms of a corkscrewed murder weapon instead of a razor, also enter the digital domain. In the case of the diode, a voltage drop across the diode itself causes 'degeneration' of the signal. We cross the threshold back into the denoted realm of the analogue as: "This can ultimately cause a 1 to be interpreted as a 0". [Digital Electronics. William H. Gothmann. New Jersey. 1982. p. 106]

(from waves text)

and:

A simple form of AM often used for digital communications is on-off keying, a type of amplitude-shift keying by which binary data is represented as the presence or absence of a carrier wave. This is commonly used at radio frequencies to transmit Morse code, referred to as continuous wave (CW) operation.

what is frequency modulation:

Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation which represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. (Contrast this with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied while its frequency remains constant.) In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal.

amplitude modulation works on the vertical axis

frequency on the horizontal axis

of a wave. a wave in time.

vocoder/voice coder:

http://www.nsa.gov/publications/publi00019.cfm

But there is more to it. Between 1942 and 1945, while working for Bell laboratories and the British Secret Service, respectively, Shannon and Turing developed the vocoder, a wunderwaffe which was to make the transatlantic telephone conversations between Churchill and Roosevelt safe from interception by Canaris and the German Abwehr, 62 and which, like so many electronic achievements of the Second World War, is now indispensable to popular music. It lives up to its name: it encodes any given data stream A with the envelope curves of another sound sequence B, for example the voice of a singer, after a switching matrix has by way of free permutation changed the frequency of the envelope curves. In the case of Laurie Anderson's electronic violin, the third-octave band between 440 and 550 hertz follows in absolute synchronicity the volume which her voice happens to have in the third-octave band between 1760 and 2200 hertz, while a third third-octave band of her songs controls a fourth of her violin, and so on and so forth. Primal sounds do not correspond to anatomical features and sounds do not follow Mondrian's graphics; rather, the paradoxical result is that one and the same controls one and the same: one acoustics controls the other.

In order to test his vocoder, by the way, Turing first played a record of Winston Churchill's belligerent voice, whose discreet or cut-up sampled values he then mixed with a noise generator using modular addition. Whereupon British officers heard the voice of their prime minister and commander-in-chief contaminate the speakers as just so much white noise [not to say, primal sound]. Appropriately, Turing's vocoder was named after Delila, who in the Book of Judges tricked another warrior, the Danaite Samson, out of the secret of his strength. Turing's skill as a tinkerer, however, revealed the secret of modern political discourse to be something far worse than weakness: "a perfectly even and uninformative hiss" 63 which offered no regularities and, therefore, nothing intelligible to the ears of British officers or those of German eavesdroppers. And yet, sent through the vocoder a second time, Churchill's original voice emerged from the receiving end.

Kittler - Gramophone ( http://www.acmi.net.au/AIC/PHONO_KITTLER.html#fn0 )

vocoder as a form of sampling

discretisation. encoding and decoding

Vocoder theory

The human voice consists of sounds generated by the opening and closing of the glottis by the vocal cords, which produces a periodic waveform with many harmonics. This basic sound is then filtered by the nose and throat (a complicated resonant piping system) to produce differences in harmonic content (formants) in a controlled way, creating the wide variety of sounds used in speech. There is another set of sounds, known as the unvoiced and plosive sounds, which are not modified by the mouth in the same fashion.

The vocoder examines speech by finding this basic carrier wave, which is at the fundamental frequency, and measuring how its spectral characteristics are changed over time by recording someone speaking. This results in a series of numbers representing these modified frequencies at any particular time as the user speaks. In doing so, the vocoder dramatically reduces the amount of information needed to store speech, from a complete recording to a series of numbers. To recreate speech, the vocoder simply reverses the process, creating the fundamental frequency in an oscillator, then passing it through a stage that filters the frequency content based on the originally recorded series of numbers.

also for the vocoder:

http://www.sirlab.de/linux/descr_vocoder.html

from there:

A vocoder aims to replace the carrier of your voice with another carrier from another source. Thus, it changes the sound of the voice but not the message when you speak. It takes formant and carrier from external sources and splits them up in bands (a band is a region of frequencies, same thing an equalizer does). Then, the envelope (the modulation) is extraced from each formant band. This part is done by an envelope follower, an extreme low pass filter. Next, formant bands are modulated onto the carrier bands and the resulting bands are mixed together to the output signal.

transistor doubling - mirror

action at a distance (woman as... (Nietzsche. The Gay Science the bachelor machinery of...)

symmetry?

diode - one way street of current flow divides for the rainbow

The Elizabethan magus John Dee sketched some of the first imaginative designs for this general purpose symbolic CPU. Leibniz further mapped out the field in his baroque Monadology making full use of the ever present components of the absolute ascending binary permuting incessantly through the power of the combinatorial; integration, the double integral and a breaking down into the discrete proving essential for a component-based architecture which could be mapped over Von Neumann's CPU design replete with self-confessed easter-egg decorations; the blossoming mushroom cloud again fulfilling a design which cannot be laid down in silicon but which occupies the same production relation to energy or light (waves). A speed, a raw figure dictating wavelength and impacting on aerial design. Radio-telescopy directed back at the planet's (brighter than one thousand) sun(s) spots.