for waves. 14:47 (tech_notes#154)

1] three basic transistor circuits or configurations.

from our 25 Schaltungen... book:

1) emitter-grundschaltung
2) Kollektor-grundschaltung
3) Basis-grundschaltung

translated as:


A transistor may be connected in any one of three basic configurations (fig. 2-16): common emitter (CE), common base (CB), and common collector (CC). The term common is used to denote the element that is common to both input and output circuits. Because the common element is often grounded, these configurations are frequently referred to as grounded emitter, grounded base, and grounded collector.



which further explains these configurations

2] the digital as a hiding or obscuring process in some ways; a falsehood of software further reinforced by a faked exposure: "these ones and zeroes are physical voltages."

3] what is unity voltage gain?

A gain of factor 1 or (equivalent to 0 dB) where both input and output are at the same voltage level is also known as unity gain.

also see:


THE SIMPLE EMITTER-FOLLOWER. The simplest discrete circuit-block is the emitter-follower. It acts as a unity-voltage-gain buffer. A buffer is a stage with high input impedance and low output impedance; typically it prevents things downstream from loading things upstream. The simple emitter-follower does not have a gain of exactly one, but it is usually pretty close; this will depend somewhat on the output loading; don't expect the output impedance to be as low as a opamp with plenty of NFB. This page deals only with simple emitter-followers, ie those with one transistor as the actual follower. This count of one does not include extra transistors used as current-sources, etc to improve current-sinking behaviour.


4] time and the C-R network:

arrival end of essay at the digital.

monostable vibrator

p63 (Penrose - PC interfacing) - monostable with one 555 chip

= 74HC14 quotation from data sheet:

The SN54LS/74LS13 and SN54LS/74LS14 contain logic gates/inverters which accept standard TTL input signals and provide standard TTL output levels. They are capable of transforming slowly changing input signals into sharply defined, jitter-free output signals. Additionally, they have greater noise margin than conventional inverters.

Each circuit contains a Schmitt trigger followed by a Darlington level shifter and a phase splitter driving a TTL totem pole output. The Schmitt trigger uses positive feedback to effectively speed-up slow input transitions, and provide different input threshold voltages for positive and negative-going transitions. This hysteresis between the positive-going and negative-going input thresholds (typically 800 mV) is determined internally by resistor ratios and is essentially insensitive to temperature and supply voltage variations.