program// - all introductions (what do we think we know?), my introductions, schedule - also introduce probes (filter and amplifier) and construction magnetic fields.
EM investigations (whatever these may be, and the question comes last) as a question of substance, of materiality
… and of physics and of metaphysics
an invisible phenomena which surrounds us
also in work of Maxwell and others as that which makes possible radio and global networking (more than just simple "radio")
at the same time leading into a physics of uncertainty under the heading of "the aether" and a guiding light
[Maxwell's equations (unifying electricity, magnetism, (speed of light) under a series of equations predicting how forces (measured) relate, interact and behave]
a question of what is (ontology) and of making sense (of what is - encryption, decryption, hiddenness)
emissions - what generates emissions? TEMPEST, natural radio
TEMPEST is a codename referring to investigations and studies of compromising emanations (CE). Compromising emanations are defined as unintentional intelligence-bearing signals which, if intercepted and analyzed, disclose the information transmitted, received, handled, or otherwise processed by any information-processing equipment.
[Wim Von Eck 1985]
EXP: demo. tempest screen [AM 10 MHz / mW low 5 Mhz]
the aether? [universal medium for universal of speed of light]
Naive mechanistic ways to imagine “what is waving” should only be created for children in the kindergarden or other people who have some intellectual limitations that prevent them from understanding that equations themselves can be fundamental and they are fundamental and that the fields can live in empty vacuum.
Luboš Motl [string theorist]
Maxwell's electromagnetic field equations seemed to by-pass the aether, he might profess still to believe in an aether, but it was no longer necessary to him to explain light. His was a new and utterly disturbing sort of theory, in which he talked of waves, but did not care what was doing the waving. What Maxwell has done was introduce abstract, formal mathematical modelling by differential equations, as the basis of a physical understanding of the phenomena… It is not surprising that Thomson was perturbed by this.
I never satisfy myself until I can make a mechanical model of a thing. If I can make a mechanical model, I understand it… and that is why I cannot get the electromagnetic theory of light.
[Oliver Lodge] quoted Lord Salisbury as saying that "aether is little more than a nominative case of the verb to undulate". Others criticized it as an "English invention", although Rayleigh jokingly corrected them to state it was actually an invention of the Royal Institution.
[Demon in the aether]
In addition, Maxwell's equations required that all electromagnetic waves in vacuum propagate at a fixed speed, c. As this can only occur in one reference frame in Newtonian physics (see Galilean-Newtonian relativity), the aether was hypothesized as the absolute and unique frame of reference in which Maxwell's equations hold. That is, the aether must be "still" universally, otherwise c would vary along with any variations that might occur in its supportive medium. Maxwell himself proposed several mechanical models of aether based on wheels and gears, and George FitzGerald even constructed a working model of one of them. These models had to agree with the fact that the electromagnetic waves are transverse but never longitudinal.
Maxwell wrote in Encyclopedia Britannica:
Aethers were invented for the planets to swim in, to constitute electric atmospheres and magnetic affluvia, to convey sensations from one part of our bodies to another, and so on, until all space had been filled three or four times over with aethers…. The only aether which has survived is that which was invented by Huygens to explain the propagation of light.
EXP: scope (waveform in baudline), function generator, radio(SW1)
as a consequence -> EVP (signal) and noise
making sense of a landscape:
data space - communication and intention/ signal and noise
interest in EVP/ITC: stochastic resonance theory - a noise support
EVP and associated phenomena (proof of life after death) proliferate as practise and as anecdote across the global Internet - shared techniques and historical support. The story is traced across colourful figures such as the Swedish Friedrich Jurgenson who first noticed such voices during recordings of birdsong, attracting the attention of Konstantin Raudive (Latvia) (late 50s/60s - Breakthrough 1971), Hans Bender and Hans Otto Koenig making an experimental TV appearance in the early 80s in which a clear voice was heard to say: "Otto Koenig makes wireless with the dead."
[baudline spectral analysis software above]
EXP: demo spark transmission - lowest MW battery or BBQ (try also with capacitor - 1 SW lowest)
voltage - electrical potential. hydraulic analogies.
current - flow of electric charge. electric current produces a magnetic field
charge - EXP - static (accumulation of charge)
(after hertz, 1888 proof in Berlin radio waves)
(again with reference to oscilloscope)
and wavelength relation to frequency - (speed of light [3x10 power of 8 m/s] / frequency)
[thus as frequency increases, wavelength decreases]
Diode-detector (detective) as one-way street
Also the coherer (iron filings)
Antennas were first used in 1888 by Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) to prove the existence of electromagnetic waves predicted by the theory of James Clerk Maxwell.
Antenna as architecture, designs of antenna (monopole or whip, helical, loop and many others), the relationship between antenna length and wavelength (for monopole wavelength/4), a spatial constraint, passive and active antennas, DIY material use (eg. cantenna)
architecture: spray or paint/draw on antenna, copper tape, metal structures
From a classical point of view, the electromagnetic field can be regarded as a smooth, continuous field, propagated in a wavelike manner, whereas from a quantum mechanical point of view, the field can be viewed as being composed of photons.
two sides of the same coin:
There is only a single object, the electromagnetic field, and in different reference frames, it appears as different combinations of electric and magnetic fields (Philosophy of Physics)
propogation after Maxwell:
Once this electromagnetic field has been produced from a given charge distribution, other charged objects in this field will experience a force (in a similar way that planets experience a force in the gravitational field of the Sun). If these other charges and currents are comparable in size to the sources producing the above electromagnetic field, then a new net electromagnetic field will be produced. Thus, the electromagnetic field may be viewed as a dynamic entity that causes other charges and currents to move, and which is also affected by them. These interactions are described by Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force law.
EXP: magnetic field experiment - iron filings. induction/relation - compass and wire, coil and magnet
What Maxwell had done in his new paper (1864) he compared to being a bell-ringer:
In an ordinary belfry, each bell has one rope which comes down through a hole in the floor to the bellringer's room. But suppose that each rope, instead of acting on one bell, contributes to the motion of many pieces of machinery, and that the motion of each piece is determined not by the motion of one rope alone, but by that of several, and suppose, further that all this machinery is silent and utterly unknown to the men at the ropes, who can only see as far as the holes in the floor above them.
also question of instantaneous action at a distance (forces, effects, measurements) and the existence of the field
these distances allowing for broadcast radio, wireless communication, surveillance usw. - for light exactly
materiality) enable networks of transmission and reception (broadcast/network) (cf. laboratory planet after bureau d'etudes)
a clear line from Maxwell into Einstein's (special) relativity
and quantum physics [the world as held in [un]certainty]. superposition of the wave function describing a knowing
The word "light" is defined here as "electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength"; thus, X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, infrared light, microwaves, radio waves, and visible light are all forms of light.
a) as artists and/or scientists (project of science)
b) simple apparatus - awareness of our own role and surroundings - materiality and architecture
the active circuit - architecture, embedded structures and metals - reflections and demodulations,
c) archeology of the experiment - a recent history of science
d) fiction. critical knowledge
e) exploration - what else?
the aether and its double: http://1010.co.uk/maxwell_presentation.html#1
clock speeds: http://www.1010.co.uk/waves_paper.html
poor peenemuende/2: http://www.1010.co.uk/peenemunde.html
Date: 2008/07/16 18:24:44
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